Gestational Diabetes Issues and References
Compiled by Jackie Bradshaw
The main issues of controversy in gestational diabetes:
This list of issues is from an extensive article, Gestational Diabetes: What is GD? by Kmom (www.plus-size-pregnancy.org/gd/gd_whatis.htm).
For more articles on Gestational Diabetes, see ‘All About Gestational Diabetes‘ by KMom (www.plus-size-pregnancy.org/gd/gd_index.html)
- Whether GD can be prevented or minimized through proactive action
- When and how to diagnose GD – Universal testing, types of testing, reliability, optimal cut-off points, etc
- How risky GD really is or is not (how great is the burden of illness or/and is intervention really justified?)
- How cost effective treatment is (does it sufficiently reduce enough problems to justify the costs?)
- How effective interventions really are (do they reduce the burden of illness or outcome significantly?)
- Whether strong degrees of intervention used introduce more risk that the GD itself
- The proper levels of GD dietary management – calories, vitamin/mineral supplementation, 5 or carbohydrate etc)
- What levels of blood glucose are most desirable in GD (extremely tight control versus less tight control)
- When insulin use becomes desirable (prophylactic insulin use for borderline cases etc)
- Questions about research design and contradictory results from previous studies. What is the true incidence of GD?
- Treatment protocols for preventing/delaying type 2 diabetes in the mother after birth.
Where an article is available on the Web, a direct link is given.
American Diabetic Association (1996)
Brundenell, J.M. (1982) Diabetic Pregnancy. (Ed) Progress in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vol 2. Edinburgh. Churchill Livingstone. Cited in; Sweet, B. (Eds) Mayes Textbook for Midwives, (1997) Balliere Tindall. London.
Buchanan, T.A. Kjos, S.L. (1999) Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism. Jun;84(6):1854-7
Chia, Y.T. Chua, S. et al (1996) Singapore Journal Medicine. Dec;37(6):591-4
Crichton, M.A. Silverton, L.I. (1985) The Sweeter Side of Life: A Review of Diabetes and its Effects on Pregnancy. Midwifery. 1: 195 – 206 Cited in; Sweet, B. (1997) (Eds) Mayes Textbook for Midwives, Balliere Tindall. London.
Enkin, M. Keirse, J. Chalmers, I. (1992) A Guide to Effective Care in Pregnancy & Childbirth. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
Goer. H. (1995) Obsetric risk versus research realities. Bergin & Garvey. Westport.
Greco, P. Loverrom, G. (1994) Gynecoogy & Obstetrics. 37(4):242-5
Heddegard, M. et al (1996) Epidemiology. Jul;7(4):339-45
Henderson, C. Jones, K. (Eds) (1997) Essential Midwifery. Mosby. London.
Hodnett, E.D. Continuity of Caregivers for Care During Pregnancy And Childbirth. Cochrane Library. Issue 3, 1999. Oxford: Update Software.
Jackson, E.a. Francke, L. et al. (1996) Journal Family Practitioners. Oct;43(4):383-8
Kjos, S.L. (1994) Seminal Perinatolology. Oct;18(5):470-4
Jarret, R.J. (1993) Gestational Diabetes: a non-entity? British Journal of Medicine. 306 (6869):33-38. Cited in: Sweet, B. (Eds) Mayes Textbook for Midwives, (1997) Balliere Tindall. London.
Jones, M.W. Stone, L.C. (1998) Journal Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing Mar;11(4):13-24
Kerbel, D. Glazier, R. et al. (1997) Journal Medical Screening. 4(3):128-32
Kirkland, F. (1999) Preconceptual Care for Women with Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing. Vol 3 No 4.
Saint Vincent Declaration: (1989) WHO Regional Office for Europe. Diabetes Mellitus in Europe: a Problem at All Ages in All Countries, a Model for Prevention and Self-care, 10-12 October, St Vincent (Aosta), Italy
Shields, N. Turnbull, D. et al. (1998) Midwifery. Jun;14(2):85-93
Shivvers, S.A. Lucas, M.J. (1999) Journal Reproductive Medicine. Aug;44(8):685-8
Siccardi, D.C. Obstetrics & Gynecology Resident. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil.
Metzger, B.E. Coustan, D.R. (1998) (Eds.): Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 21 (Suppl. 2):B1- B167
Okun, N. Verma, A. et al (1997) Canadian Family Physician. Jan;43(1):88-93
O’Sullivan, J. B. et al. The Potential Diabetic and her Treatment in Pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gyanaecology. 27 (5): 683-689. Cited in; Goer. H. (1995) Obsetric risk versus research realities. Bergin & Garvey. Westport.
Helton, M.R. Arndt, J. et al (1997) Journal Family Practitioners. Jun;44(6):556-61
Hinchcliff, S. Montague, S. (1988) Physiology for Nursing Practice, Balliere Tindall. London.
Sweet, B. (Eds) Mayes Textbook for Midwives, (1997) Balliere Tindall. London.
Hawthorne, G. Snodgrass, A. Tunbridge, M. (1994) Diabetes Resident Clinical Practitioner. Oct;25(3):183-90
Mironiuk, M. Kietlinska, Z. et al. (1997) Clinical Expert Obstetrics & Gynecology. 24(4):193-7
Rizzo, T. et al. (1991) Correlation Between Antepartum Maternal Metabolism and Intelligence of Offspring. New England Journal Of Medicine. 325:911-16.
Hallak, M. Tsalamandris, K. et al. (1996) Journal Reproductive Medicine. Nov;41(11):871-4
Vogel, N. Burnand, B. (2000) European Journal Obstetric Gynecology & Reprodctive Biology. Jul;91(1):29-36
Cox, M. Whittle, M.J. Byrne, A. et al. (1992) Prepregnancy Counselling: Experience from 1075 cases. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol 99, no 11, November, pp 873-876
Dang, K. Homko, C. et al (2000) Journal Maternal & Fetal Medicine. Mar-
Emma Innes. Diabetic Nurse. Worcestershire Acute Hospitals Trust.
Jarret, R.J. (1993) Gestational Diabetes: a non-entity? British Journal of Medicine. 306 (6869):33-38.
Lyn Shepherd. Diabetic Link Midwife. Worcestershire Acute Hospitals Trust.
Mires, G.J. Williams, F.L. Harper, V. (1999) Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee. UK. From Diabetic Medicine 1999, Feb; 16 (2);138-41
Walsh, M. (1999) Clincical Nursing & Related Sciences. 5th Ed. Balliere Tindall, London.
Clicking on the web address below will open each link in this window. Alternatively, you can click ‘Open in new window’ to open each link in its own window.
Diabetes Care and Research in Europe – The Saint Vincent Declaration . Declaration arising from meeting Organized by WHO and IDF in Europe, 10-12 October 1989
Saint Vincent Declaration – Open in new window
Understanding Gestational Diabetes – a practical guide to a healthy pregnancy – from the USA’s National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Understanding GD – Open in new window
Nutrition Recommendations and Principles for People With Diabetes Mellitus , from the American Diabetes Association, published in Diabetes Care.
Nutrition article – Open in new window
Compiled by Jackie Bradshaw
AH updated 2 May 2002